SSL and Exchange Server

Posted on 2 CommentsPosted in 2008 R2, 2012 R2, 2013, certificates, exchange, https, IAmMEC, JetNexus, load balancer, Load Master, loadbalancer, mobile phones, SSL, TLS, windows server, xp

In October 2014 or thereabouts it became known that the SSL protocol (specifically SSL v3) was broken and decryption of the encrypted data was possible. This blog post sets out the steps to protect your Exchange Server organization regardless of whether you have one server or many, or whether or not you use a load balancer or not. As load balancers can terminate the SSL session and recreate it, it might be that changes are needed on your load balancer or maybe directly on the servers that run the CAS role. This blog post will cover both options and looks at the settings for a Kemp load balancer and a JetNexus load balancer.

Of course being an Exchange Server MVP, I tend to blog about Exchange related stuff, but actually this is valid for any server that you publish to the internet and probably valid of any internal server that you encrypt traffic to via the SSL suite of protocols. Microsoft outline the below configuration at https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/security/3009008.aspx.

The steps in this blog will look at turning off the SSL protocol in Windows Server and turning on the TLS protocol (which does the same thing as SSL and is interchangeable for SSL, but more secure at the time of writing – Jan 2015). Some clients do not support TLS (such as Internet Explorer on Windows XP Service Pack 2 or earlier, so securing your servers as you need to do may stop some home users connecting to your Exchange Servers, but as XP SP2 should not be in use in any business now, these changes should not affect desktops. You could always use a different browser on XP as that might mitigate this issue, but using XP is a security risk in an of itself anyway! To disable clients from connecting to SSL v3 sites requires a client or GPO setting and this can be found via your favourite search engine.

Note that the registry settings and updates for the load balancers in this blog post will restrict client access to your servers if your client cannot negotiate a mutual cipher and secure channel protocol. Therefore care and testing are strongly advised.

Testing and checking your changes

Before you make any changes to your servers, especially internet facing ones, check and document what you have in place at the moment using https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest. This service will connect to an SSL/TLS protected web site and report back on the issues found. Before running any of the changes below see what overall rating you get and document the following:

  • Authentication section: record the signature algorithm. For the signature algorithm its possible the certificate authority signature will be marked “SHA1withRSA WEAK SIGNATURE”. This certificate, if rekeyed and issued again by your certificate authority might be replaced with a SHA-2 certificate. The Google Chrome browser from September 2014 will report sites secured with this SHA-1 certificate as not fully trustworthy based on the expiry date of the certificate. If your certificate expires after Jan 1st 2017 then get it rekeyed as soon as possible. As 2015 goes on, this date will move closer in time. From early 2015 this cut off date becomes June 1st 2016 and so on. Details on the dates for this impact are in http://googleonlinesecurity.blogspot.co.uk/2014/09/gradually-sunsetting-sha-1.html. You can also use https://shaaaaaaaaaaaaa.com/ to test your certificate if the site is public facing, and this website gives details on who is now issuing SHA-2 keyed certificates. You can examine your external servers for SHA-1 certificates and the impact in Chrome (and later IE and Firefox) at https://www.digicert.com/sha1-sunset/. To do the same internally, use the DigiCert Certificate Inspector at https://www.digicert.com/cert-inspector.htm.
  • Authentication section: record the path values. Ensure that each certificate is either in the trust store or sent by the server and not an extra download.
  • Configuration section: document the cipher suites that are provided by your server
  • Handshake simulation section: Here it will list browsers and other devices (mobile phones) and what their default cipher is. If you do not support the cipher they support then you cannot communicate. Note that you typically support more than one cipher and the client will often support more than one cipher to, so though it is shown here as a mismatch this does not mean that it will not work and if this client is used by your users then click the link for the client and ensure that the server offers at least one of the the ciphers required by the client – unless all the ciphers are insecure in which case do not use that client!

Once you have a document on your current configuration, and a list of the clients you need to support and the ciphers they need you to support, you can go about removing SSL v3 and insecure ciphers.

Disabling SSL v3 on the server

To disable SSL v3 on a Windows Server (2008 or later) you need to set the Enabled registry value at “HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\Schannel\Protocols\SSL 3.0\Server” to 0. If this value does not exist, the create a DWORD value called “Enabled” and leave it at 0. You then need to reboot the server.

If you are using Windows 2008 R2 or earlier you should enable TLS v1.1 and v1.2 at the same time. Those versions of Windows Server support TLS v1.1 and v1.2 but it is not enabled (only TLS v1.0 is enabled). To enable TLS v1.1 and v1.2 use set the Enabled value at “HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\Schannel\Protocols\TLS 1.1\Server” to 1. Change the path to “HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\Schannel\Protocols\TLS 1.2\Server” and the same setting to support TLS v1.2. If these keys do not exist, create them. It is also documented that the “DisabledByDefault” key is required, but I have seen this noted as being the same as the “Enabled” key – just the opposite value. Therefore as I have not actually checked, I set both Enabled to 1 and DisabledByDefault to 0.

To do both the disabling of SSL v2 and v3 (v2 can be enabled on older versions of Windows and should be disabled as well) I place the following in a .reg file and double click it on each server, followed by a reboot for it to take effect. This .reg file contents also disables the RC4 ciphers. These ciphers have been considered insecure for a few years and when I configure my servers not to support SSL v3 I also disable the RC4 ciphers as well.

Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00

 

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\Schannel\Protocols\SSL 2.0]

 

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\Schannel\Protocols\SSL 2.0\Client]

"Enabled"=dword:00000000

 

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\Schannel\Protocols\SSL 2.0\Server]

"Enabled"=dword:00000000

 

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\Schannel\Protocols\SSL 3.0]

 

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\Schannel\Protocols\SSL 3.0\Client]

"Enabled"=dword:00000000

 

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\Schannel\Protocols\SSL 3.0\Server]

"Enabled"=dword:00000000

 

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\Schannel\Ciphers\RC4 128/128]

"Enabled"=dword:00000000

 

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\Schannel\Ciphers\RC4 40/128]

"Enabled"=dword:00000000

 

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\Schannel\Ciphers\RC4 56/128]

"Enabled"=dword:00000000

Then I use the following .reg file to enabled TLS v1.1 and TLS v1.2

Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00

 

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\Schannel\Protocols\TLS 1.1]

 

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\Schannel\Protocols\TLS 1.1\Client]

"Enabled"=dword:00000001

"DisabledByDefault"=dword:00000000

 

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\Schannel\Protocols\TLS 1.1\Server]

"Enabled"=dword:00000001

"DisabledByDefault"=dword:00000000

 

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\Schannel\Protocols\TLS 1.2]

 

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\Schannel\Protocols\TLS 1.2\Client]

"Enabled"=dword:00000001

"DisabledByDefault"=dword:00000000

 

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\Schannel\Protocols\TLS 1.2\Server]

"Enabled"=dword:00000001

"DisabledByDefault"=dword:00000000

 

Once you have applied both of the above sets of registry keys you can reboot the server at your convenience. Note that the regkeys may set values that are already set, for example TLS v1.1 and v1.2 are enabled on Exchange 2013 CAS servers and SSL v2 is disabled. For example the first of the below graphics comes from a test environment of mine that is running Windows Server 2012 R2 without any of the above registry keys set on them. You can see that Windows Server 2012 R2 is vulnerable to the POODLE attack and supports the RC4 cipher which is weak.

image

The F grade comes from patched but un-configured with regards to SSL Windows Server 2008 R2 server

image

After setting the above registry keys and rebooting, the test at https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest then showed the following for 2012 R2 on the left (A grade) and Windows Server 2008 R2 on the right (A- grade):

image image

Disabling SSL v3 on a Kemp LoadMaster load balancer

If you protect your servers with a load balancer, which is common in the Exchange Server world, then you need to set your SSL and cipher settings on the load balancer, unless you are only balancing at TCP layer 4 and doing SSL pass through. Therefore even for clients that have a load balancer, you might not need to make the changes on the load balancer, but on the server via the above section instead. If you do SSL termination on the load balancer (TCP layer 7 load balancing) then I recommend setting the registry keys on the Exchange servers anyway to avoid security issues if you need to connect to the server directly and if you are going to disable SSL v3 in one location (the load balancer) there is no problem in disabling it on the server as well.

For a Kemp load balancer you need to be running version 7.1-20b to be able to do the following, and to ensure that the SSL code on the load balancer is not susceptible to issues such as heartbleed as well. To configure your load balancer to disable SSL v3 you need to modify the SSL properties of the virtual server and check the “Support TLS Only” option.

To disable the RC4 weak ciphers then there are a few choices, but the easiest I have seen to do is to select “Perfect Forward Secrecy Only” under Selection Filters and then add all the listed filters. Then from this list remove the three RC4 ciphers that are in the list.

If you do not select “Support TLS Only” and leave the ciphers at the default level then your load balancer will get an C grade at the test at https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest because it is vulnerable to the POODLE attack. Setting just the “Support TLS Only” option and leaving the default ciphers in place will result in a B grade, as RC4 is still supported. Removing the RC4 ciphers (by following the instructions above to add the perfect forward secrecy ciphers and remove the RC4 ciphers from this list) as well as allowing only the TLS protocol will result in an A grade.

image

Kemp 7.1-22b does not support SSL v3 for the API and web interface as well as completing the above to protect the virtual services that the load balancer offers.

Kemp Technologies document the above steps at https://support.kemptechnologies.com/hc/en-us/articles/201995869, and point out the unobvious setting that if you filter the cipher list with the “TLS 1.x Ciphers Only” setting then it will only show you the TLS 1.2 ciphers and not any TLS 1.1 or TLS 1.0 ciphers. THerefore selecting “TLS 1.x Ciphers Only” rather than filtering using “Perfect Forward Secrecy Only” will result in a reduced client list, which may be an issue.

I was able to achieve an A grade on the SSL Labs test site. My certificate uses SHA-1, but expires in 2015 so by the time SHA-1 is reported an issue in the browser I will have changed it anyway.

image

Disabling SSL v3 on a JetNexus ALB-X load balancer

If you protect your servers with a load balancer, which is common in the Exchange Server world, then you need to set your SSL and cipher settings on the load balancer, unless you are only balancing at TCP layer 4 and doing SSL pass through. Therefore even for clients that have a load balancer, you might not need to make the changes on the load balancer, but on the server via the above section instead. If you do SSL termination on the load balancer (TCP layer 7 load balancing) then I recommend setting the registry keys on the Exchange servers anyway to avoid security issues if you need to connect to the server directly and if you are going to disable SSL v3 in one location (the load balancer) there is no problem in disabling it on the server as well.

For a JetNexus ALB-X load balancer you need to be running build 1553 or later. Build 1553 is a version 3 build, so any version 4 build is of a higher, and therefore valid build. This build (version 3.54.3) or later is needed to ensure Heartbleed mitigation and to allow the following configuration changes to be applied.

To configure the JetNexus  you need to upload a config file to turn off SSL v3 and RC4 ciphers. The config file is .txt file that is uploaded to the load balancer. In version 4, the primary cluster node can have the file uploaded to it, and the changes are replicated to the second node in the cluster automatically.

Before you upload a config file to make the changes required, ensure that you backup the current configuration from Advanced >> Update Software and click the button next to Download Current Configuration to save the configuration locally. Ensure you backup all nodes in a v4 cluster is appropriate.

Then select one of the three config file settings below and copy it to a text file and upload it from Advanced >> Update Software and use the Upload New Configuration option to install the file. The upload will reset all connections, do do this at during a quiet period of time.

The three configs are to reset the default ciphers, to disable SSL v3 and RC4, and to disable TLS v1.0 and SSL v3 and RC4

JetNexus protocol and cipher defaults:

#!update

 

[jetnexusdaemon]

Cipher004="ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:AES128-GCM-SHA256:RC4:HIGH:!MD5:!aNULL:!EDH"

Cipher1=""

Cipher2=""

CipherOptions="CIPHER_SERVER_PREFERENCE"

JetNexus protocol and cipher changes to disable SSL v3 and disable RC4 ciphers:

#!update

 

[jetnexusdaemon]

Cipher004="ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:AES128-GCM-SHA256:HIGH:!MD5:!aNULL:!EDH:!RC4"

Cipher1=""

Cipher2=""

CipherOptions="NO_SSLv3,CIPHER_SERVER_PREFERENCE"

JetNexus protocol and cipher changes to disable TLS v1.0, SSL v3 and disable RC4 ciphers:

#!update

 

[jetnexusdaemon]

Cipher004="ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:AES128-GCM-SHA256:HIGH:!MD5:!aNULL:!EDH:!RC4"

Cipher1=""

Cipher2=""

CipherOptions="NO_SSLv3,NO_TLSv1,CIPHER_SERVER_PREFERENCE"

On my test environment I was able to achieve an A- grade with the SSL Test website and the config to disable TLS 1.0, SSL3 and RC4 enabled. The A- is because of a lack of support for Forward Secrecy with the reference browsers used by the test site.

image

Browsers and Other Clients

There too much to discuss with regards to clients, apart from they need to support the same ciphers as mentioned above. A good guide to clients can be found at https://www.howsmyssl.com/s/about.html and from there you can test your client as well.

Additional comment 23/1/15 : One important comment to make though comes courtesy of Ingo Gegenwarth at https://ingogegenwarth.wordpress.com/2015/01/20/hardening-ssltls-and-outlook-for-mac/. This post discusses the TLS Renegotiation Indication Extension update at RFC 5746. It is possible to use the AllowInsecureRenegoClients registry key at HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL to ensure that only clients with the update mentioned at http://support.microsoft.com/kb/980436 are allowed to connect. If this is enabled (set to Strict Mode) and the above to disable SSL 2 and 3 is done then Outlook for Mac clients cannot connect to your Exchange Server. If this regkey is deleted or has a non-zero value then connections to SSL 2 and 3 can be made, but only for a renegotiation to TLS. Therefore ensure that you allow Compatibility Mode (which is the default) when you disable SSL 2 and 3, as Outlook for Mac and Outlook for Mac for Office 365 both require SSL support to then be able to start a TLS session.

Speaking at TechEd Europe 2014

Posted on 4 CommentsPosted in certificates, cloud, EOP, exchange, exchange online, Exchange Online Protection, GeoDNS, hybrid, IAmMEC, journaling, mcm, mcsm, MVP, Office 365, smarthost, smtp, starttls, TechEd, TLS, transport

I’m please to announce that Microsoft have asked me to speak on “Everything You Need To Know About SMTP Transport for Office 365” at TechEd Europe 2014 in Barcelona. Its going to be a busy few weeks as I go from there to the MVP Summit in Redmond, WA straight from that event.

image

My session is going to see how you can ensure your migration to Office 365 will be successful with regards to keeping mail flow working and not seeing any non-deliverable messages. We will cover real world scenarios for hybrid and staged migrations so that we can consider the impact of mail flow at all stages of the project. We will look at testing mail flow, SMTP to multiple endpoints, solving firewalling issues, and how email addressing and distribution group delivery is done in Office 365 so that we always know where a user is and what is going to happen when they are migrated.

Compliance and hygiene issues will be covered with regards to potentially journaling from multiple places and the impact of having anti-spam filtering in Office 365 that might not be your mail flow entry point.

We will consider the best practices for changing SMTP endpoints and when is a good time to change over from on-premise first to cloud first delivery, and if you need to maintain on-premises delivery how should you go about that process.

And finally we will cover troubleshooting the process should it go wrong or how to see what is actually happening during your test phase when you are trying out different options to see which works for your company and your requirements.

Full details of the session, once it goes live, are at http://teeu2014.eventpoint.com/topic/details/OFC-B350 (Microsoft ID login needed to see this). Room and time to be announced.

Changing AD FS 3.0 Certificates

Posted on 7 CommentsPosted in 2012, 2012 R2, ADFS, ADFS 3.0, certificates, IAmMEC, Office 365, WAP, Web Application Proxy

I am quite adept at configuring certificates and changing them around, but this one took me completely by surprise as it has a bunch of oddities to consider.

First the errors: Web Application Proxy (WAP) reported 0x80075213. In the event log the following:

The federation server proxy could not establish a trust with the Federation Service.

Additional Data
Exception details:
The underlying connection was closed: Could not establish trust relationship for the SSL/TLS secure channel.

User Action
Ensure that the credentials being used to establish a trust between the federation server proxy and the Federation Service are valid and that the Federation Service can be reached.

And

Unable to retrieve proxy configuration data from the Federation Service.

Additional Data

Trust Certificate Thumbprint:
431116CCF0AA65BB5DCCD9DD3BEE3DFF33AA4DBB

Status Code:
Exception details:
System.Net.WebException: The underlying connection was closed: The connection was closed unexpectedly.
at System.Net.HttpWebRequest.GetResponse()
at Microsoft.IdentityServer.Management.Proxy.StsConfigurationProvider.GetStsProxyConfiguration()

This was ultimately caused by the certificate on the AD FS Server having been replaced in the user interface, but this did not replace the certificate that HTTP was using or the published web applications and the certificates they were using.

So here are the steps to fix this issue:

AD FS Server

  1. Ensure the certificate is installed in the computer store of all the AD FS servers in the farm
  2. Grant permissions to the digital certificate to the ADFS Service account. Do this by right-clicking the new digital certificate in the MMC snap-in for certificates and choosing All Tasks > Manage Private Keys. Grant read permission to the service account that ADFS is using (you need to click Object Types and select Service Accounts to be able to select this user). Repeat for each server in the farm.
  3. In the AD FS management console expand service > certificates and ensure that the service communications certificate is correct and that the date is valid.
  4. Open this certificate by double-clicking it and on the Details tab, check the value for the Thumbprint.
  5. Start PowerShell on the AD FS Server and run Get-AdfsSslCertificate (not Get-AdfsCertificate). You should get back a few rows of data listing localhost and your federation service name along with a PortNumber and CertificateHash. Make sure the CertificateHash matches the Thumbprint for the service communications certificate.
  6. If they do not, then run Set-AdfsSslCertificate -Thumbprint XXXXXX (where XXXXX is the thumbprint value without spaces).
  7. Then you need to restart the ADFS Server.
  8. Repeat for each member of the farm, taking them out and in from any load balancer configuration you have. Ensure any SSL certs on the load balancer are updated as well.

Web Application Proxy

  1. Ensure the certificate is installed in the computer store of the web application proxy server as well. Permissions do not need to be set for this service.
  2. Run Get-WebApplicationProxySslCertificate. You should get back a few rows of data listing localhost and your federation service name along with a PortNumber and CertificateHash. Make sure the CertificateHash matches the Thumbprint for the service communications certificate. If it does not use Set-WebApplicationProxySslCertificate -Thumbprint XXXXX to change it. Here XXXXX is the thumbprint value without spaces.
  3. Restart WAP server and it should now connect to the AD FS endpoint and everything should be working again.
  4. Check that each Web Proxy Application is using the new certificate. Do this with Get-WebApplicationProxyApplication | Set-WebApplicationProxyApplication -ExternalCertificateThumbprint XXXXXX (where XXXXX is the thumbprint value without spaces). This sets all your applications to use the same certificate. If you have different certificates in use, then do them one by one with Get-WebApplicationProxyApplication | Format-Table Name,ExternalCert* to see what the existing thumbprints are and then Get-WebApplicationProxyApplication “name” | Set-WebApplicationProxyApplication -ExternalCertificateThumbprint XXXXXX to do just the one called “name”.

The New Rights Management Service

Posted on 3 CommentsPosted in aadrm, active directory, certificates, cloud, compliance, dirsync, exchange, exchange online, https, hybrid, journal, journaling, mcm, mcsm, microsoft, Office 365, Outlook, pki, policy, rms, smarthost, transport, unified messaging, voicemail

This blog is the start of a series of articles I will write over the next few months on how to ensure that your data is encrypted and secured to only the people you want to access it, and only for the level of rights you want to give them.

The technology that we will look at to do this is Microsoft’s recently released Windows Azure Active Directory Rights Management product, also known as AADRM or Microsoft Rights Management, or “the new RMS”.

In this series of articles we will look at the following:

The items above will get lit up as the article is released – so check back or leave a comment to this post and I will let you know when new content is added to this series.

What is “rights management”

Simply this is the ability to ensure that your content is only used by whom you want it to be used by and only for what you grant. Its known in various guises, and the most common guise is Digital Rights Management (DRM) as applied to the music and films you have been downloading for years.

With the increase in sharing music and other mp3 content in the last ten plus years, the recording companies and music sellers started to protect music. It did not go down well, and I would say this is mainly because the content was bought and so the owner wanted to do with it as they liked – even if what they liked was legal they were limited from doing so. I have music I bought that I cannot use because the music retailer is out of business or I tried to transfer it too many times. I now buy all my music DRM free.

But if the content is something I created and sold, rather than something I bought I see it very differently. When the program was running I was one of the instructors for the Microsoft Certified Master program. I wrote and delivered part of the Exchange Server training. And following the reuse of my and other peoples content outside of the classroom, the content was rights protected – it could be read only by those who I had taught. Those I taught think differently about this, but usually because the management of getting a new copy of the content when it expires!

But this is what rights management is, and this series of articles will look at enabling Azure Active Directory Rights Management, a piece of Office 365 that if you are an E3 or E4 subscriber then you already have, and if you have a lower level of subscription or none at all you can buy for £2/user/month and this will allow you to protect the content that you create, that it can be used by only those you want to read it (regardless of where you or they put it) and if you want it can expire after a given time.

In this series we will look at enabling the service and connecting various technologies to it, from our smartphones to PC’s to servers and then distributing our protected content to whom needs to see it. Those who receive it will be able to use the content for free. You only pay to create protected content. We will also look at protecting content automatically, for example content that is classified in a given way by Windows Server or emails that match certain conditions (for example they contain credit cards or other personally identifiable information (PII) information such as passport or tax IDs) and though I am not a SharePoint guru, we will look at protecting content downloaded from SharePoint document libraries.

Finally we will look at users protecting their own content – either the photographs they take on their phones of information they need to share (documents, aka using the phones camera as a scanner) or taking photos of whiteboards in meetings where the contents on the board should not be shared too widely.

Stick around – its a new technology and its going to have a big impact on the way we share data, regardless of whether we share it with Dropbox or the like or email or whatever comes next.

Domain Secure and Edge Servers

Posted on Leave a commentPosted in 2007, 2010, 2013, certificates, cloud, exchange, firewall, smarthost, smtp, transport

I was asked a question recently on the Microsoft Certified Master course for Exchange 2010 and was told that the answer was not clearly written up on the internet. So I thought I would write this blog post. The question was based on the idea that Domain Secure worked from a Hub Transport server in the classroom lab but not when mail flow went via an Edge server.

Domain Secure is end to end security, it cannot have anything in the middle – i.e. it cannot go via an Exchange Edge server, an Exchange 2013 Frontend Server or a third party SMTP relay.

The SMTP client in the connection (the send connector host) needs to connect to the SMTP server (the receive connector host) and swap certificates and prove the other side is who the other side say they are – i.e. mutual authentication. Also the domains must match the TLS list in TransportConfig (TLSSendDomainSecureList and TLSReceiveDomainSecureList). Therefore anything in the middle will offer a different certificate and so Domain Secure fails.

If there is a middle party and you want to do mutual authentication (i.e. swap certs to prove who you are), with one party offering their cert and not the cert of the final recipient domain (i.e. mail.messaging.microsoft.com or postini.com etc.) then use TLSAuthLevel and the DomainValidation option on the send connector (an SP1 addition to Exchange 2010). No green ticky ticky though.

Edge can do Domain Secure though. But Edge needs to be the starting point, i.e. the host of the send connector. So configure Domain Secure on the Edge (i.e. set the certificates and correct firewall settings) and ensure that the send connector for Domain Secure has the Edge server as the source. Ensure Edge Domain Secure receive connector is the target for inbound as well if you want it to work both ways. And of course you need working EdgeSync so hubs can deliver to Edge so that Edge can deliver emails for you.

Installing and Configuring AD RMS and Exchange Server

Posted on 4 CommentsPosted in 2007, 2008 R2, 2010, active directory, certificates, exchange, exchange online, microsoft, networking, Office 365, organization relationships, owa, rms, server administrator

Earlier this week at the Microsoft Exchange Conference (MEC 2012) I led a session titled Configuring Rights Management Server for Office 365 and Exchange On-Premises [E14.314]. This blog shows three videos covering installation, configuration and integration of RMS with Exchange 2010 and Office 365. For Exchange 2013, the steps are mostly identical.

Installing AD RMS

This video looks at the steps to install AD RMS. For the purposes of the demonstration, this is a single server lab deployment running Windows Server 2008 R2, Exchange Server 2010 (Mailbox, CAS and Hub roles) and is the domain controller for the domain. As it is a domain controller, a few of the install steps are slightly different (those that are to do with user accounts) and these changes are pointed out in the video, as the recommendation is to install AD RMS on its own server or set of servers behind a IP load balancer.

Configuring AD RMS for Exchange 2010

The second video looks at the configuration of AD RMS for use in Exchange. For the purposes of the demonstration, this is a single server lab deployment running Windows Server 2008 R2, Exchange Server 2010 (Mailbox, CAS and Hub roles) and is the domain controller for the domain. This video looks at the default ‘Do Not Forward’ restriction as well as creating new templates for use in Exchange Server (OWA and Transport Rules) and then publishing these templates so they can be used in Outlook and other Microsoft Office products.

 

Integrating AD RMS with Office 365

The third video looks at the steps needed to ensure that your Office 365 mailboxes can use the RMS server on premises. The steps include exporting and importing the Trusted Publishing Domain (the TPD) and then marking the templates as distributed (i.e. available for use). The video finishes with a demo of the templates in action.

OWA and Moving Mailboxes to Office 365

Posted on Leave a commentPosted in 2010, ADFS, ADFS 2.0, certificates, exchange, exchange online, federation, Office 365, organization relationships, owa, powershell

Lets imagine a scenario where you are using an on-premises Exchange Server and users’ use Outlook Web App, and then you move some mailboxes to the Office 365 cloud with Hybrid Coexistence enabled. The user might not know their mailbox has been moved and so yesterday they went to https://mail.company.com/owa, but today they need to visit https://outlook.com/owa/company.com (where company.com is the domain name in your login name).
But becuase the user does not know that their mailbox has been moved when they visit https://mail.company.com/owa they get an error that their OWA URL is out of date.
To fix this, and provide the user with the correct URL (https://outlook.com/owa/company.com) then you need to set the TargetOwaURL property of the Organization Relationship that you have configured for your Office 365 service domain.

Set-OrganizationRelationship name -TargetOwaURL https://outlook.com/owa/company.com

Now when users login with an account that has been moved to the cloud they will be told that their mailbox has moved, and that they should visit https://outlook.com/owa/company.com.
Some organizations though have an issue with this URL – it does not mention the company name in the domain name bit, and a name such as http://webmail.company.com/owa would be preferred for mailboxes moved to the cloud. To present the user with this URL after they login to on-premises OWA or for a URL that you can just tell them to use you need to do two things:

  1. Create a CNAME record in DNS for webmail that has outlook.com as the target FQDN. The CNAME record can be anything that is not already in use for the domain (for example it could be mail if that is not in use).
  2. The TargetOwaURL property of the Organization Relationship needs to be http://webmail.company.com/owa. The TargetOwaURL must finish with /owa or the on-premises OWA redirect page will error and the domain name used must be the domain name in your login name.

The outlook.com server will take the CNAME value provided by the browser and do realm discovery on this name – that is it will redirect you to the correct login server for your domain.

Publishing ADFS Through ISA or TMG Server

Posted on 2 CommentsPosted in 2010, 2013, 64 bit, active directory, ADFS, ADFS 2.0, certificates, exchange, exchange online, https, isa, mcm, microsoft, Office 365, pki, tmg

To enable single sign-on in Office 365 and a variety of other applications you need to provide a federated authentication system. Microsoft’s free server software for this is currently Active Directory Federation Server 2.0 (ADFS), which is downloaded from Microsoft’s website.

ADFS is installed on a server within your organisation, and a trust (utilising trusted digital certificates) is set up with your partners. If you want to authenticate to the partner system from within your environment it is usual that your application connects to your AFDS server (as part of a bigger process that is better described here: http://blogs.msdn.com/b/plankytronixx/archive/2010/11/05/primer-federated-identity-in-a-nutshell.aspx). But if you are outside of your organisation, or the connection to ADFS is made by the partner rather than the application (and in Office 365 both of these take place) then you either need to install ADFS Proxy or publish the ADFS server through a firewall.

This subject of the blog is how to do this via ISA Server or TMG Server. In addition to configuring a standard HTTPS publishing rule you need to disable Link Translation and high-bit filtering on the HTTP filter to get it to work.

Here are the full steps to set up AFDS inside your organisation and have it published via ISA Server – TMG Server is to all intents and purposes the same, the UI just looks slightly different:

  1. New Web Site Publishing Rule. Provide a name.
  2. Select the Action (allow).
  3. Choose either a single website or load balancer or use ISA’s load balancing feature depending on the number of ADFS servers in your farm.
  4. Use SSL to connect:
    image
  5. Enter the Internal site name (which must be on the SSL certificate on the ADFS server and must be the same as the externally published name as well). Also enter the IP address of the server or configure the HOSTS files on the firewall to resolve this name as you do not want to loop back to the externally resolved name:
    image
  6. Enter /adfs/* as the path.
  7. Enter the ADFS published endpoint as the Public name (which will be subject or SAN on the certificate and will be the same certificate on the ADFS server and the ISA Server):
    image
  8. Select or create a suitable web listener. The properties of this will include listening on the external IP address that your ADFS namespace resolves to, over SSL only, using the certificate on your ADFS server (exported with private key and installed on ISA Server), no authentication.
  9. Allow the client to authenticate directly with the endpoint server:
    image
  10. All Users and then click Finish.
  11. Before you save your changes though, you need to make the following two changes
  12. Right-click the rule and select Configure HTTP:
    image
  13. Uncheck Block high bit characters and click OK.
  14. Double-click the rule to bring up its properties and change to the Link Translation tab. Uncheck Apply link translation to this rule:
    image
  15. Click OK and save your changes.

ADFS should now work through ISA or TMG assuming you have configured ADFS and your partner organisations correctly!

To test your ADFS service connect to your ADFS published endpoint from outside of TMG and visit https://fqdn-for-adfs/adfs/ls/idpinitiatedsignon.aspx to get a login screen

Changing ADFS 2.0 Endpoint URL for Office 365

Posted on 3 CommentsPosted in 2007, 2010, 2013, ADFS, ADFS 2.0, certificates, exchange, exchange online, https, hybrid, IAmMEC, ISA Server 2006, mcm, Office 365, SSL, tmg

If you are configuring single sign-on for Office 365 then you will need a server running Active Directory Federation Services 2.0 (ADFS 2.0). When you install this you are asked for a URL that acts as an endpoint for the ADFS service, which if you are publishing that endpoint through a firewall such as TMG needs to be on a mutually trusted certificate as either the subject name or alternative subject name.

The documentation uses sts.yourdomain.com which means you need to have this as a valid name of the certificate. I use StartCom SSL, which provide cheap certificates (approx. $100 for as many certificates as you like), but to change a certificate to add an additional alternative subject name requires revoking the current cert, and that comes at additional cost.

So I have a certificate with lots of name on it for my domain, just not sts.mydomain.com so I set about changing the endpoint in ADFS 2.0

Firstly open the ADFS 2.0 administrative console and select the root note:

image

Click Edit Federation Service Properties in the Action Pane and modify the three values on the General tab:

image

After clicking OK, restart the AD FS 2.0 Windows Service.

After the restart, create a new Token-Signing Certificate and Token-Decrypting Certificate. These are self signed certificates. To allow you to add these you need to turn off automatic certificate rollover if enabled. This can be done from PowerShell using Set-ADFSProperties –AutoCertificateRollover $false and this cmdlet is available in Windows PowerShell Modules in the Administrative Tools menu.

To update Office 365 start the Microsoft Online Services Module for Windows PowerShell, installed as part of the Office 365 rich co-existence process. In this PowerShell window type Update-MsolFederatedDomain –DomainName yourFederatedDomain.com. You will also need to login to Office 365 in this window first (Connect-MsolService) and set PowerShell with the name of the ADFS server (Set-MsolADFSContext –Computer ADFS_ServerName). Type Get-MsolFederatedDomain –DomainName yourFederatedDomain.com to ensure that the returned URL’s and certificates are correct.

Now its time to update the TMG rule, or create a new one. The listener in TMG must have the same third party certificate and be for HTTPS with the Public Name matching the certificate subject/subject alternative name and the Path value set to /adfs/*. The To page needs to be set with the same URL and internal IP address of the ADFS 2.0 server.

image

And that should be it – after the Update-MsolFederatedDomain –DomainName yourFederatedDomain.com has completed both sides of the federation trust are aware of the certificate change and automatic login to http://outlook.com/yourFederatedDomain.com should work.

GoDaddy SSL Certificate Approval with TXT Records

Posted on 10 CommentsPosted in certificates, exchange, hosting, https, iis, networking, SSL

I had a bit of an issue with Go Daddy yesterday in that they took 5 days to approve a Subject Alternative Name change to a certificate, and as the usual route of adding a file to a website was unavailable to me I decided to prove ownership of the domain by the addition of a new TXT record to the domain.

Go Daddy’s instructions for doing this are only suitable for domains hosted at Go Daddy and there are no clear instructions for doing this if you do not use Go Daddy for your DNS hosting.

So how do you create an SSL approval with TXT record? You do it by creating a TXT record for a subzone. The subzone is DZC and the value of the record is the seven character string that Go Daddy sent you via email. For example dzc.domain.co.uk TXT AbCdEfG.

Once DNS has replicated to ALL of your DNS servers you can return to Go Daddy’s web form and approve your SSL certificate. You can check if all your DNS servers have your new data by using NSLookup or Dig, but preferred is the use of either of these two tools from an independent third party on the internet – for example www.kloth.net/services/nslookup.php or www.dnssy.com/lookup.php.