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The New Rights Management Service

This blog is the start of a series of articles I will write over the next few months on how to ensure that your data is encrypted and secured to only the people you want to access it, and only for the level of rights you want to give them.

The technology that we will look at to do this is Microsoft’s recently released Windows Azure Active Directory Rights Management product, also known as AADRM or Microsoft Rights Management, or “the new RMS”.

In this series of articles we will look at the following:

The items above will get lit up as the article is released – so check back or leave a comment to this post and I will let you know when new content is added to this series.

What is “rights management”

Simply this is the ability to ensure that your content is only used by whom you want it to be used by and only for what you grant. Its known in various guises, and the most common guise is Digital Rights Management (DRM) as applied to the music and films you have been downloading for years.

With the increase in sharing music and other mp3 content in the last ten plus years, the recording companies and music sellers started to protect music. It did not go down well, and I would say this is mainly because the content was bought and so the owner wanted to do with it as they liked – even if what they liked was legal they were limited from doing so. I have music I bought that I cannot use because the music retailer is out of business or I tried to transfer it too many times. I now buy all my music DRM free.

But if the content is something I created and sold, rather than something I bought I see it very differently. When the program was running I was one of the instructors for the Microsoft Certified Master program. I wrote and delivered part of the Exchange Server training. And following the reuse of my and other peoples content outside of the classroom, the content was rights protected – it could be read only by those who I had taught. Those I taught think differently about this, but usually because the management of getting a new copy of the content when it expires!

But this is what rights management is, and this series of articles will look at enabling Azure Active Directory Rights Management, a piece of Office 365 that if you are an E3 or E4 subscriber then you already have, and if you have a lower level of subscription or none at all you can buy for £2/user/month and this will allow you to protect the content that you create, that it can be used by only those you want to read it (regardless of where you or they put it) and if you want it can expire after a given time.

In this series we will look at enabling the service and connecting various technologies to it, from our smartphones to PC’s to servers and then distributing our protected content to whom needs to see it. Those who receive it will be able to use the content for free. You only pay to create protected content. We will also look at protecting content automatically, for example content that is classified in a given way by Windows Server or emails that match certain conditions (for example they contain credit cards or other personally identifiable information (PII) information such as passport or tax IDs) and though I am not a SharePoint guru, we will look at protecting content downloaded from SharePoint document libraries.

Finally we will look at users protecting their own content – either the photographs they take on their phones of information they need to share (documents, aka using the phones camera as a scanner) or taking photos of whiteboards in meetings where the contents on the board should not be shared too widely.

Stick around – its a new technology and its going to have a big impact on the way we share data, regardless of whether we share it with Dropbox or the like or email or whatever comes next.

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Publishing ADFS Through ISA or TMG Server

To enable single sign-on in Office 365 and a variety of other applications you need to provide a federated authentication system. Microsoft’s free server software for this is currently Active Directory Federation Server 2.0 (ADFS), which is downloaded from Microsoft’s website.

ADFS is installed on a server within your organisation, and a trust (utilising trusted digital certificates) is set up with your partners. If you want to authenticate to the partner system from within your environment it is usual that your application connects to your AFDS server (as part of a bigger process that is better described here: But if you are outside of your organisation, or the connection to ADFS is made by the partner rather than the application (and in Office 365 both of these take place) then you either need to install ADFS Proxy or publish the ADFS server through a firewall.

This subject of the blog is how to do this via ISA Server or TMG Server. In addition to configuring a standard HTTPS publishing rule you need to disable Link Translation and high-bit filtering on the HTTP filter to get it to work.

Here are the full steps to set up AFDS inside your organisation and have it published via ISA Server – TMG Server is to all intents and purposes the same, the UI just looks slightly different:

  1. New Web Site Publishing Rule. Provide a name.
  2. Select the Action (allow).
  3. Choose either a single website or load balancer or use ISA’s load balancing feature depending on the number of ADFS servers in your farm.
  4. Use SSL to connect:
  5. Enter the Internal site name (which must be on the SSL certificate on the ADFS server and must be the same as the externally published name as well). Also enter the IP address of the server or configure the HOSTS files on the firewall to resolve this name as you do not want to loop back to the externally resolved name:
  6. Enter /adfs/* as the path.
  7. Enter the ADFS published endpoint as the Public name (which will be subject or SAN on the certificate and will be the same certificate on the ADFS server and the ISA Server):
  8. Select or create a suitable web listener. The properties of this will include listening on the external IP address that your ADFS namespace resolves to, over SSL only, using the certificate on your ADFS server (exported with private key and installed on ISA Server), no authentication.
  9. Allow the client to authenticate directly with the endpoint server:
  10. All Users and then click Finish.
  11. Before you save your changes though, you need to make the following two changes
  12. Right-click the rule and select Configure HTTP:
  13. Uncheck Block high bit characters and click OK.
  14. Double-click the rule to bring up its properties and change to the Link Translation tab. Uncheck Apply link translation to this rule:
  15. Click OK and save your changes.

ADFS should now work through ISA or TMG assuming you have configured ADFS and your partner organisations correctly!

To test your ADFS service connect to your ADFS published endpoint from outside of TMG and visit https://fqdn-for-adfs/adfs/ls/idpinitiatedsignon.aspx to get a login screen

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Enabling ActiveSync on a Sony P1i with a GoDaddy Certificate

GoDaddy issued certificates are not trusted by the Sony P1i phone and so if you are using a GoDaddy issued digital certificate for ActiveSync on one of these phones you will be prompted to accept the certificate at each sync. As this kills the purpose of push email sync you will want to stop the prompt.

You do this by installing the GoDaddy trusted root certificate. On any Windows computer that works when connecting to a website protected with your GoDaddy certificate run mmc.exe and add the Certificates snap-in, selecting the local user option. Browse to Trusted Root Certification Authorities and click on the Certificates node. Find and right-click the Go Daddy Class 2 Certification Authority and choose All Tasks > Export. Export the certificate as a DER encoded binary X.509 (.CER) file to a folder on that computer.

Email that file to the owner of the Sony P1i and sync the phone to download their email (confirming the prompt that we want to remove). Open the email and download the attachment. Once the attachment is downloaded (which might involve syncing again and confirming the certificate prompt) open the attachment. The phone will install the certificate into its certificate store. No more prompts!

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Configuring an SSTP VPN on Small Business Server 2008

SSL based VPN’s are great. In short it is VPN without firewall or NAT issues (both of which you get with PPTP and IPSec VPN’s). But SBS 2008 does not enable SSTP VPN’s by default. It uses RRAS, so SSTP is possible, but it is not as easy as it first looks! The following is a brief guide to the steps. Exact step by step instructions are not included, as you should be someone with RRAS and certificates experience before approaching this, and if you are not but have a business need for SSTP VPN (and who doesn’t!) then call C7 Solutions in the UK on 0845 257 1777 for help and assistance. This is not at all easy to configure and get working.

  1. Ensure that you have run the connecting to the internet wizard, and that you are using a third party certificate (as there are less steps if you do this). With the default self signed certificate SSTP will not work as the client on the internet will not be able to reach the certificate revocation location. Using the installed Certificate Services and creating your own issued certificate requires publishing to the internet the certificate revocation information and so adds steps that are not entirely necessary given that certificates are inexpensive and would cost less to buy than the time taken to go through all the extra steps needed with your own issued certificates.
  2. Enable remote access from the SBS Console > Network > Connectivity page and choose Configure a Virtual Private Network link under Connectivity Tasks on the right-hand side of the window.
  3. Add some SSTP ports to the VPN in the Routing And Remote Access management program. Right-click Ports and choose Properties and enable SSTP for remote access inbound connections and set the number of connections to a suitable number for your organization. Leave PPTP enabled as Windows XP does not support SSTP VPN tunnels (only Vista SP1 and later will do so).
  4. Create an MMC and add in the local computers Certificate snap-in. View the properties of your trusted certificate that you are using for Remote Web Workplace and note down the Thumbprint value of this certificate.
  5. Ensure that this certificate is associated with and [::]:443 network bindings on the server. Type netsh http show ssl from elevated command prompt to get this information. You typically get four entries with IP:port being the first line of each. Check for IP:port reading “” and [::]:443 as this shows the IPv4 and IPv6 mappings for SSL certificates on the server. Ignore the :8172 and :987 entries (these are for IIS Management Service and companyweb).
  6. If the certificate hash is not the same for both the remote web workplace certificate and the netsh bindings information in the previous two steps or if you are missing the IPv6 binding then you need to reset the bindings. If they are same then jump to step 7.
    a) Ensure that the certificate bound to the remote web workplace is correct. From the client machine browse to You should be automatically forwarded to and the login page. If you get any certificate errors during this in the web browser you must fix them now before continuing.
    b) If the certificate on the remote web workplace site is incorrect then run the Fix My Network wizard and the Set Up Your Internet Address wizard in the SBS Console (both found in the Network > Connectivity > Connectivity Task pane).
    c) Repeat the test in step a and if the certificate that is now associated with the site is incorrect also run the Add A Trusted Certificate wizard which is found in the same place as above. This step should not be needed if a trusted certificate has already been installed on the server and it matches the name and the wizards in step b will associate the correct certificate to the website.
    d) From an elevated command prompt delete the certificate binding for IPv4 by typing netsh http delete sslcert ipport= The binding should be deleted successfully.
    e) From an elevated command prompt delete the certificate binding for IPv6 by typing netsh http delete sslcert ipport=[::]:443. The binding should be deleted successfully if an IPv6 binding existed, otherwise expect to see an error which can be ignored.
    f) Delete the certificate binding in the RRAS configuration by deleting these registry keys, if they exist, “HKLM\ System\ CurrentControlSet\ Services\ Sstpsvc\ Parameters\ Sha256CertificateHash” and “HKLM\ System\ CurrentControlSet\ Services\ Sstpsvc\ Parameters\ Sha1CertificateHash
    g) Connect the correct certificate to the IPv4 and IPv6 bindings by typing the following entries from an elevated command prompt where xxx is the certificate hash of the trusted certificate used for the Remote Web Workplace. netsh http add sslcert ipport= certhash=xxx appid={ba195980-cd49-458b-9e23-c84ee0adcd75} certstorename=MY and netsh http add sslcert ipport=[::]:443 certhash=xxx appid={ba195980-cd49-458b-9e23-c84ee0adcd75} certstorename=MY.
    h) Close any open copy of IIS Manager and restart the program. Ensure that the bindings for the SBS Web Applications site is correctly bound to your trusted remote web workplace certificate.
    i) Note that binding SSTP to the IPv4 and IPv6 listeners on port 443 will cause TS Gateway administration to display error messages (specifically that the certificate is not bound and that the IIS web site is not configured). These errors can be ignored on SBS 2008 but if you click the links to fix the errors then all will work fine. The only condition is that this fixing of errors must be done after SSTP is configured correctly (so ensure SSTP connectivity works and then come back to this step to fix). Future changes to the certificate in IIS or TS Gateway might break the SSTP binding.
  7. From a client machine browse to{BA195980-CD49-458b-9E23-C84EE0ADCD75}/ and ensure that no errors occur. Note that you will not see anything in the web browser. View the properties of the certificate, specifically the CRL Distribution Points (CDP) value. Note that you should not have got any certificate errors when browsing to this site and if you did you need to resolve them before continuing further in these steps.
  8. Browse to the CDP URL in the above certificate – you should be able to reach this location on the web without error. The web browser should attempt to download the CDP file.
  9. On a Vista (SP1 or later) or Windows 7 client create a new VPN connection and in properties of the connection object choose the Security tab and ensure that the Type of VPN is set to SSTP. For regular everyday use set this to Auto, and it will find a working protocol (starting with PPTP) and so if PPTP does not work due to NAT or firewall/proxy issues SSTP will be tried and succeed (but for testing set the VPN connection specifically to SSTP). Also ensure that the name of the server you are connecting to is the same name that the certificate uses for the certificate common name.
  10. Connect the VPN and all should work. Errors regards certificate trust will appear if you have used the self issued certificate, even if you have added the certificate to your certificate store and have the certificate working in Internet Explorer. Once you have connected you can confirm from the RRAS management console that you are connected over an SSTP VPN connection. To confirm this click Ports in the RRAS management console and the active connection should be utilizing an SSTP port.
  11. Congratulate yourself on getting this far – this is not easy!